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The distinctive features of syntagmatic syntax, the traits differentiat-

ing it from paradigmatic syntax, are obvious. Paradigmatic syntax deals

with the structure of the sentence, the number and position of its con-

stituents, compared with other choices. Syntagmatic syntax deals mainly

with a chain of sentences, the sequence of sentences constituting a text.

we search for stylistic functions in the sequence of sentence forms.

Sentences in sequence often show no regular alternation of form. We

see that such syntax is stylistically neutral. Often, however, certain

regular alternations or reiterations are conspicuous and stylistically rele-


For example, regular alternation of interrogative and declarative

sentences characterizes the text as a dialogue (if questions and answers

belong to different speakers) or as an inner monologue (if there is one


Regular interchange or repetition may not only concern communicative

types of sentences, but their syntactic structure as well.

Parallelism contributes to rhythmic and melodic unification of adja

cent sentences. But not only that. As everywhere in language, semantic

is the predominant factor. It is only with regard to lexical meanings tha

the constructive function of parallelism can be defined. It serves eithe

to emphasize the repeated element, or to create a contrast or else underlines the semantic connection between sentences.

we can discern the following lexico-syntactical devices.

anaphora, epiphora, symploca, anadiplosis, chiasmus.

Anaphora. This term implies identity of beginnings, of one or sever

initial elements in adjacent sentences (verse lines, stanzas, paragraphs).

This device, often met with, serves the purpose of strengthening the

element that recurs:

My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here,

My heart's in the Highlands, a-chasing the deer...

Farewell to the forests and wild hanging woods!

Anaphoric recurrence of words or word combinations helps the reader

(hearer) to fix the recurring segment in his memory. It also imparts a

certain rhythmical regularity to the prosodic system of the text.

Epiphora. This stylistic figure is the opposite of anaphora. It is re-

currence of one or several elements concluding two (or more) syntacti-

cal units (utterances, verse lines, sentences, paragraphs, chapters). Ex-


Framing. This term is used here to denote the recurrence of the initial

segment at the very end of a syntactic unit (sentence, paragraph, stanza):

"Money is what he's after, money!" (Galore)

"Those kids were getting it all right, with busted heads and

bleeding faces — those kids were getting it." (Griffith)

Chiasmus means 'crossing'. The term

denotes what is sometimes characterized as 'parallelism reversed': two

syntactical constructions (sentences or phrases) are parallel, but their

members (words) change places, their syntactical positions.

"I love my Love and my Love loves me!" (Coleridge)

"The jail might have been the infirmary, the infirmary might

have been the j ail..." (Dickens )


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