#. The use of articles with nouns in some syntactic functions.

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• A noun in the subject position preceded by the definite art in specifying function (the way was too long)
• The indef art in its classifying function occurs to express the item of novelty or unexpectedness (A girl was standing on the opposite side of the landing) The same situation with existential There is/ comes/ appears (There is exceptional to the rule)
• With the noun functioning as an object any article can be used. The indef art after verbs of possession and obligatory in verb-object phrases denoting a single action such as ‘to have a smoke’
• The use of articles in the functions of an adverbial depends partly on the type of adverbial modifier.
o In adverb of place the def art is used in its specifying function to identify the exact place(Jane is in the garden)
o The indef art in classifying function – description of the place (Crystal lives alone in a small shabby house)
o In adverbial of comparison threindef art (as strong as a lion)
• In noun modifiers the indef art – emphasize the importance and novelty of the noun
• Predicative and appositive nouns are used:
o With the classifying indef article which show that the speaker characterizing a person, object as a certain class of thing. With pl – no art (She is really an excellent creature)
o If there is a limiting modifier, predicative and appositive nouns – the def art(he is the only person here with medical knowledge)
o if predicative and appositive nouns denote the unique position (rank, state), can be occupied by one person at a time – no art or the def (Doris was secretary to a member of parliament)
o talking about a person rather than describing someone’s role – need an article (the Queen is strongly against the project)
o variants are possible after to appoint, to choose (they appointed him a member of…/secretary)
o son, daughter + of-phrase – the def art (she is the daughter of a doctor). When emphasize the idea that there are several sons and daughters – the indef (she is a daughter of a doctor)
o no art in structure with enough where predicate nouns acquire a certain characteristic (Bollaisnt’ fool enough)
o in clause of concession with inverted word order (child as he was, his judgment was sound)


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