#Predicative complexes that function as Adverbials only.
The Absolute Nominative with Participle I Construction The absolute nominative with participle I construction is generally used as an adverbial of reason (The weather being unusually mild at that time for the season of the year, there was no sleighing) or of attendant circumstances (With a yell, he sprang back, a sweat coming on his skin), although sometimes it is an adverbial of time (The car having stopped, the boys jumped out onto the grass). Occasionally, especially with the verbs to permit or to fail, it is an adverbial of condition (Circumstances permitting, they will be through with it by the end of May).
The Absolute Nominative with Participle II Construction
Is usually an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances or of time.
Attendant circumstances ("Bye," he said, and walked away)
Time (Dinner served, Mrs Marlow rang the bell)
The Absolute Nominative with the Infinitive Construction functions as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances (There they remained, some of them to be entirely forgotten)
The Absolute Nominative Constructions with Non-Verbals
1.The absolute nominative with the adj.constr. may be an adverbial of attendant circumstance (She stood under the tree, her head full of strange ideas) or of reason (Her heart full of despair, she could not say a word.)
2.The absolute nominative with the stative construction is usually an adverbial of reason (The gallery door slightly ajar, I couId hear the steps of the soldiers) and manner (This time the fish attacked from below. It hurtled up under the woman, jaws agape)
3. The absolute nominative with the adverb construction is usually an adverbial of time (Tea over, she again summoned us to the fire)
4. The absolute nominative with a prepositional noun construction is usually either an adverbial of attendant circumstances (I waited, every nerve upon the stretch) or of time (All in the room, she called in Molly)
Prepositional Absolute Construction
begin with the preposition WITH or, sometimes WITHOUT. There are prepositional absolute con¬structions with participle I or II, with an infinitive, with an adjective, with an adverb, or with a prepositional noun. All function mainly as adverbials of attendant circumstances although sometimes they may be other adverbials. All of them can be transformed into clauses. I. The prepositional absolute construction with Part. I (With his head aching from the slap of the bullet and the blood drip¬ping over the ear, he went over to the Frenchman)
II. The prepositional absolute construction with participle II (A Negro boy lay on the pavement, with his throat cut)
III. The prepositional absolute construction with the infinitive (You'll lose the last minutes, without someone to take care of you)