#Adverbials. Ways of expressing and semantic classes

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Differ from the other types of secondary parts of the sentence:
-adverbials are usually optional, they may be omitted without making the clause unacceptable
-are not restricted in number, any number in a sentence
-are often mobile, may occur in different places in the sentences

From the point of view of their relation to the modified parts of the sentence, adverbials may be non-detached and detached.
Detached - more loosely related to the modified parts, never obligatory, separated by commas
May be caused by:
-their meaning and structure(He saw the boat, its decks deserted.)
-their extension or unusual position in the sentence(Like him, she saw the danger in it)
-the speaker’s desire for emphasis
Ways of expressing:
1)Simple(expressed by a word-form): adverb, noun,gerund,infinitive,participle: Wait a minute!
2)Phrasal(exprssed by a phrase): adverbial phrase, prepositional nominal phrase, gerundial phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, phrase introduced by a conjunction: They worked till late night.
3)Complex(expressed by a predicative complex): non-prepositional absolute construction, prepositional absolute construction, gerundial construction, for-to-infinitive construction: Are you angry because of my being late?
4)Clausal(expressed by a clause): adverbial clauses: When one door shuts another opens.
Semantic classes:
Of place (place, proper, direction); proforms: here, there; not far from
of time(time, duration,frequency) - proforms: then; once
of manner(the way the action is performed); proforms: so, thus, like that; energetically, badly
of cause/reason; proforms: therefore; prepositions: because, due to, on account of; thanks to…
of purpose; prepositions: in order, so as, for; to help us
of result( refers to an adjective or adverb accompanied by an adverb of degree too, enough); too cold to go out
of condition; proforms: in this/that case; prepositions: but for, exempt for, without; without faith
of concession (an idea that is in contradiction with what is stated in the modified part of the sentence); proforms: nevertheless, in spite of this; with all his faults…
of attendant circumstances(a fact that accompanies the event printed by the modified part of the sentence); without meeting anyone
of subsequent events(an event following the event presented); to see that it was day light
of comparison; conjunctions: than, as, as though; higher than a hill
of degree(actions,states and quality from the viewpoint of their intensity); extremely long
of exception; prepositions: but,except,but for, save for, apart from
of role; preposition: as; as a dancer…


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