#The object and complement. Ways of expressing. Types of Objects and complements.

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How to distinguish between Objects and complements:
-refer to participants in the event different from the Subject: I wrote a letter.
-sing or plural, th e object is independent of the subject
-can become subjects in a passive clause
-can be expressed by pronouns: I wrote it.
-Subj and OCompl predicate smth about the Subj or the Obj
-there is number agreement between the Subj or Obj and its Compl: He is a policeman.-They are policemen.
-Compl do not become Subj in Passive voice
-many Compl cannot be replaced by a personal pronoun
-Direct object is the single preposition less object of a monoransitive verb: I wrote a poem. or one of the 2 objects of a distransitive verb that has no prepositional phrases: They sent me a telegram.
It can become subject in a passive clause.
-Indirect object is one of the 2 objects of a ditransitive verb that has a prepositional paraphrase: They sent me a telegram. It can become subject in a passive clause: I was sent a telegram.
Indirect objects denoting eipients of the action directly involved in the process can be replaced by a to-phrase: We paid money to them. (after verbs: accord, give, mail, show, read, hand, rent, leave, play, send, write, serve)
Ind obj denoting beneficiaries correspond to a phrase with the preposition for:I’ll make you some coffee/I’ll make some coffee for you. (after verbs book, mix, save, bring, find, order, pain, cook, keep, take, leave, write etc)
-The prepositional obj is an object introduced by a preposition: We agreed on the plan.

-The subj compl is the obligatory constituent which follows a link verb(be,seem,feel,get,become,grow,turn) and cannot be maid subj in a passive clause. Denotes: the attribute of the subject(He is a very lucky man); its identity(The Browns are our neighbors); its circumstance(He is in a good mood)
-The obj compl refers to the direct obj and denoted: its identity(They appointed him Manager);attribute(We found the secretary helpful); its circumstance(I like them on toast)-
-The predicate compl is the obligatory constituent of the clause which refers to the predicate and cannot become the subj of the passive clause. Can follow: f) relational verbs(have, lack, possess,marry,suit,fit):We have plenty of time.; b) verbs of measure(measure, cost,take); c) verbs which denote a manner of movement(creep, slide,slip,steal); d) miscellaneous verbs(complain, wish, wonder,bother): I wish you success.
Can be both prepositional and non-prepositional
-the formal object it. some verbs can take an infinitive object or a clausal obj only when there is a formal object it preceding the notional object - introductory it. To show the speaker’s opinion of an action with verbs believe, consider, find, hold, think etc: He considered it his duty to go. To show feelings after the verbs adore, dislike, enjoy, like, love, prefer. After leave, make, owe, take.


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