#Verb complementation. Delexical and copular verbs.

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There are a number of very common verbs which are used with nouns to indicate that someone performs an action. The noun is often in the singular and is usually preceded by the indefinite article. These verbs have very little meaning when they are used in this way, so they are often called delexical verbs . The most common: give, have, make, take.(He took a step forward.)

Although a total number of delexical verbs is small, they include some of the commonest words in the language. Delexical structures contribute to the impression of fluency in English
In most cases only one delexical verb is used with a particular noun:
have(is followed by) - belief, dance, respect, chat, sleep, need, cry, talk
take - picture, power, chance, risk, form, responsibility, interest, time, shape
give - shout, cry, sigh, gasp, smile, laugh, scream, whistle
Some nouns refer to speech actions: advice, lecture, reason, speech, answer, report
There are number of nouns which can be used after either have or take( physical activities: bath, drink, job, run, stroll, holiday; using our senses: bite, look, sip, feel, smell, taste)
copular take one complement and serve as a link to what the referent of the subject is or becomes. Te complement of a copular verb - the subject complement and can be expressed by an adjective, a noun phrase, a prepositional phrase, an infinitive phrase of for-to-infinitive construction, a gerundial construction, a gerund phrase or complex. The most common verb is be.

They may be sensory(look, feel, smell, sound, taste), situational or current(remain, keep, seem, appear), becoming or changing(become, get, grow, turn, come)
Verbs referring to a process of becoming or change - usually occur in certain fixed idiomatic expressions
get angry, exited; get dark
become(abstract characteristics) ambitious; become colder and colder
fall(passing into a new state or condition) asleep, sick, ill
go(passing into a diff state) sour, mad, bankrupt
grow fat, louder, faint
ran short, low, wold
turn(with color) brown/(changing) sour, nasty, informer


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