#The use of articles with abstract nouns.

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Abstract: countable and uncountable. (Names of colours used in general sense are uncountable f.e. Red is often used as a danger sign. When denoting shades of colours, they are countable f.e. the trees were turning yellows and reds)
Count abstract nouns (answer, belief, doubt, effort, fact, idea, job, lie, opinion) can be used in sg and pl. (You could have a very happy life with her. He always has such brilliant ideas)
Uncount abstract nouns (anger, chemistry, impatience, jealousy, pride, relief) are used in sg.
•generic reference (Knowledge is power). No article – abstract noun is modified by a descriptive modifier.
•Nationality and geography (English literature)
•Time (ancient sculpture)
•Degree (perfect surprise)
•Authenticity (real importance)
NB! The def.articleis used in combination with the limiting of-phrase: the French poetry of that period.
- after OF,WITH,IN
1)descriptive modifiers which bring out a special aspect of quality, feeling, state. («некий»)(She looked several years younger and there was a new dignity about her).
2)Certain, curious, peculiar – obligatory use of the indef art.
4)shift in the meaning ( a help)
5) it's, hw...(what a pety)
1)With specific reference
Identification is based on:
•The linguistic context.
i. Involves reference backwards, by prior mention (John laughed and the sound of the laugh was hard)
ii. Reference forwards. Identification is made by smth about to be said.
• Situation of utterance. (And how did you like the music?)
4. Some abstract nouns are never used with the indefinite article: weather, money, news, work, luck, fun, etc. (He hid his watch for fun). Still they can be used with the def articlein case of specification (What the weather like today?). Such rule applies to the words: advice, applause, assistance, progress, information, etc.


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