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1. Falling and rising tones.

Answer:Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or

grammatical meaning—that is, to distinguish or inflect words. All verbal

languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information,

and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called

intonation, but not all languages use tones to distinguish words or their

inflections, analogously to consonants and vowels. Such tonal phonemes are

sometimes called tonemes.

In each speech unit there is one main movement of the voice , either up or down,

starting on the last prominent word of the speech unit.

// you'll aRIVE // at CENtral STAtion //

Speech units have either a falling tone or rising tone

A falling tone or a rising tone can extend over just one word ( which may be

only one syllable) or over a number of non prominent syllables at the end of a

speech unit:

//NO //

// he WORKS in a Supermarket //

// I've ALways wanted to go there //

// YES //

// is that CHOColate MILKshake //

// do you LIKE living in Paris //

Choosing a falling tone indicates that the information in the speech adds some

''news'': it is information that the hearer is not expected to know already.

Choosing a rising tone indicates that the information in the speech unit is 'not

news' : it is information that the speaker and hearer already share.

Distinguishing 'news' from 'not news' in this way can help the hearer understand

what is being said.

See you on Saturday.

//but i'll be in LONdon // at the weekEND //

In this sample the fact that I'll be in London is news to A whereas the weekend

not news it is the time we are talking about Saturday.

Underline the last prominent word (where the main movement of the voice begins)

Then show whether the voice rises (↑) or falls (↓) from there.

a. Was she really?____

b. I suppose so.______

c. I’ve always lived around here. _______

d. It’s broken down again. ______

e. Shall I have a go?____


1. Was she really tired?

2. I suppose so.

3. I’ve always lived around here.

4. It’s broken down again.

5. Shall I have a go?

2. Make the phonetic analysis of the following words:

Impatient – [im'peiʃnt] 9 letters, 3 syllables, 3 vowels, 1 diphtong , 3 short-

i,i,e , 0 long, 5 cons-s, acc to the degree of voice, 3 strong noise cons- p,

ʃ,t, acc to the work of vocal cords: voiced-no, 3 voiceless p, ʃ,t, the

manner of articulation: 2 occlusive voiceless cons- p,t, 2occlusive nasal

sonorants-m,n, 1 fricatives- ʃ, the place of articulation:2 labial: 2bilabial:

p,m, lingual: interdental: n, alveolar: t, palato alveolar- ʃ.

Unsociable- [^n'sәuʃәbl]- 10 letters, 4 syllables, 4 vowels, 4 short vowels,

long vowels- no, 1 diphtong әu, 5 consonants, noise cons- 1voiced-b, 2

voiceless- s, ʃ, 2sonorants-m,l.

Impulsive- [im'p^lsiv] 9 letters, 3 syllables, 3 vowels sounds, 3 short vowels

sounds, 5 cons, noise cons- 1voiced-v, 2voiceless-p,s, 2sonorants-m,l.

3. Classification of noise consonant sounds.

Answer: Noise consonants vary:

1.In the work of vocal cords: voiced: : [b,d, g,v, ʤ, ʒ, δ, z] voiceless:

[p,t,k,f,Ө, s,f,h,tʃ],

2.In the degree of force of articulation: weak: [b,d, g,v, ʤ, ʒ, δ, z] strong:

[p,t,k,f,Ө, s,f,h,tʃ]


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