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1. Cleft sentences.

Answer: A cleft sentence is divided into two parts, allowing us to focus

particular attention on information in one part of the sentence. Cleft sentences

are common in speech. In these examples the focus is on 'my gold necklace'

What I lost was my gold necklace.

A what-cleft ( sometimes called pseudo-cleft) has what + subject +verb in the

first clause followed by be+ the focus.

It was my gold necklace that I lost.

An it- cleft has it+be +the focus in the first clause and the first clause is

followed by a relative (that or who) clause.

What-clefts typically have a fall-rising tone at the end of the what-clause and

a falling tone in other part of the sentence. Remember that the tone begins on

the last prominent syllable of the speech.

A: I can't get the chain back on my bike.

B: WHAT you need to DO is take the WHEEL off

We can us all instead of what if we want to emphasise that only thing is done.

A: Paul hasn't spoken to me since I scratched his car.

B: ALL you've got to SAY is that you're SORy

It-clefts typically have a falling tone in the clause beginning with it. Tone

choice in the relative clause depends on meaning in context.

A: Pity about the flowers. They must have been eaten by snails.

B: it was the FROST that KILLED them

In this sentence this information is not news.

She walked into a clearing in the frost…

…and it was THEN that she SAW him . (this information is news).

Expand the notes to make it-cleft responses. Then draw a falling tone in the

clause beginning with it then either a falling or fall-rising tone, as

appropriate, in the relative clause.

a. A: How is Dan getting n in Sydney?

B: (his brother- went to Australia)

b. A: You looked uncomfortable during the meeting.

B: (my back- aching)

c. A: I suppose the Liberals will raise taxes now they are in government.

d. B: (the Democrats – won the election)


1. It was his brother who went to Australia

2. It was my back that was aching

3. It was the Democrats who won the election

2.Make the phonetic analysis of the following words:

Blister, sneezing, antiseptic

Blister- ['blistә] 7 letters, 2 syllables, 2 vowels, 2 short vowels, 4

consonants, acc.to degree of voice: noise cons-s: 1voiced: b, 2voiceless: s,t,

sonorants: L, acc.to place of artic-n: labial: 1bilabial: b, lingual:

2interdental: l, s, 1 alveolar: t, acc to manner of place: noise cons:

2occlusive stops : b,t, 1constrictive fricatives: s, sonorants: 1constrictive:


Sneezing-[sni:ziη] 8 letters, 2 syllables, 2 vowels, 1 short, 1 long, 4 cons,

acc to degree of voice: noise cons: 1voiced: z, 1 voiceless: s. 2sonorants: η,

n, acc to manner of artic-n:2 noise cons: constrictive fricative: s,z, 2

occlusive sonorants: n, η. Acc to place of artic-n: lingual: 3 interdental: s,z,

n, 1 mediolingual: palatal:η

Antiseptic- [ᵆnti'septic] 10 letters, 3 syll, 4 vowels, 4 short vowels, 6 cons,

acc to degree of noise: 5 voiceless, 1 sonorants: n, acc to manner of art-n: 4

occlusive stops: p,t,k,t, 1 constrictive fricative: s, 1 occlusive sonorants: n.

3.Classification of consonants according to the place of articulation:

According to the position of the active organ of speech against the point of

articulation consonants may be:

1. Labial

2. Lingual

3. Glottal

1.Labial consonants are made by the lips. They may be bilabial and labio-

dental. Bilabial cons. Are produced when both lips are active. They are:


Labio-dental cons are articulated with the lower lip against the edge of the

upper teeth. [f,v]

2.Lingual consonants are classified into forelingual, mediolingula, backlingual

Forelingual cons are articulated with the tip or the blade of the tongue

Acc.to the place of obstruction forelingual cons:

Interdental [Ө, s,z,n,l]


Alveolar: t,d

Post alveolar: r

Palato alveolar : ʃ, ʒ, ʤ, tʃ

Mediolingual cons are produced with the front part of the tongue. They are

always palatal: j,η

Backlingual cons are also called velar, because they are produced with the back

part of the tongue raised towards soft palate: k,g

3.Glottal cons h is articulated in the glottis.


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