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1. Falling and rising tones.


Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical

meaning—that is, to distinguish or inflect words. All verbal languages use pitch

to express emotional and other paralinguistic information, and to convey

emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but

not all languages use tones to distinguish words or their inflections,

analogously to consonants and vowels. Such tonal phonemes are sometimes called


In each speech unit there is one main movement of the voice , either up or down,

starting on the last prominent word of the speech unit.

// you'll aRIVE // at CENtral STAtion //

Speech units have either a falling tone or rising tone

A falling tone or a rising tone can extend over just one word ( which may be

only one syllable) or over a number of non prominent syllables at the end of a

speech unit:

//NO //

// he WORKS in a Supermarket //

// I've ALways wanted to go there //

// YES //

// is that CHOColate MILKshake //

// do you LIKE living in Paris //

Choosing a falling tone indicates that the information in the speech adds some

''news'': it is information that the hearer is not expected to know already.

Choosing a rising tone indicates that the information in the speech unit is 'not

news' : it is information that the speaker and hearer already share.

Distinguishing 'news' from 'not news' in this way can help the hearer understand

what is being said.

See you on Saturday.

//but i'll be in LONdon // at the weekEND //

In this sample the fact that I'll be in London is news to A whereas the weekend

not news it is the time we are talking about Saturday.

Decide whether the speech units in the B parts have a rising tone (↑) or a

falling tone (↓).

1. A:What time shall we leave?

B: \ we could go now __\ as you’re ready___\

2. A: What time did David get back?

B: \ I heard him come in ___\ at about three___\

3. A: I’m not sure his plan would work very well.

B: \ I thought his suggestion ___\ was ridiculous ___\

Answer: 1. 2. 3.

2.Make the phonetic analysis of the following words:

Mugger- Committed- Investigated-

3.Classification of vowels according to the principle of tongue position

Moving up and down in the mouth various parts of the tongue may be raised to

different height towards roof of the mouth.

When the front or the back of the tongue is raised high towards the plate the

vowel is called close. [i:, i, u, u:]

When the highest part of the tongue occupies the position intermediate between

the close and the open one mid vowels are pronounced. [e, ^, ʒ:, ә]

When the front or the back of the tongue is as low as possible in the mouth open

vowels are pronounced. [ᵆ, a:, Ͻ, Ͻ:]


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