18 билет

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1.Question tags.

A question tag is a question added at the end of a sentence. Speakers use

question tags chiefly to make sure their information is correct or to seek


When a tag is spoken, the voice can go up or down. If the voice goes up, it is

called Rising Intonation and if it goes down, it is called Falling Intonation.

It is a nice day today, isn’t it? ↘

A falling intonation means that the speaker is sure (or almost sure) that the

statement is true. The speaker knows that it is a nice day. The tag is not a

real question. He is inviting his friend to continue the conversation.

You have been on holiday, haven’t you? ↗

A rising intonation means that the speaker is less sure. He thinks that his

friend has been on holiday, but he isn’t sure. The tag is more like a real


Suggest an appropriate question tag to complete B’s responses. Then read them

aloud, using either a rising or falling tone on the tag as appropriate. Put ↑


A: Don’t forget your gloves.

B: They’re yours, ….?

A: Try to come early to get a good seat.

B: There’ll be a lot of people, ….?

A: What a terrible noise.

B: You’re not a rock music fan, ….?

2. Make phonetic analysis: Comets, chlorine, phosphorus

3. Classification of vowels according to the principle of tongue position

Classification of vowels according to the principle of tongue position

Moving up and down in the mouth various parts of the tongue may be raised to

different height towards roof of the mouth.

When the front or the back of the tongue is raised high towards the plate the

vowel is called close. [i:, i, u, u:]

When the highest part of the tongue occupies the position intermediate between

the close and the open one mid vowels are pronounced. [e, ^, ʒ:, ә]

When the front or the back of the tongue is as low as possible in the mouth open

vowels are pronounced. [ᵆ, a:, Ͻ, Ͻ:]

#19 билет

1.Intonation. Sentence stress.

Answer: Sentence stress is a greater prominence with which one or more words are

in a sentence are pronounced as compared with the other words according to their

informational (semantic) importance.

Sentence stress can also be subdivided as to its function into syntagmatic

stress, syntactic stress and logical stress.

Sentence stress

In any sentence, some words carry a stress. These are the ‘strong’ or ‘lexical’

words (usually nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs). The remaining words are

‘grammatical’ words and are unstressed or ‘weak’ (conjunctions, pronouns,

prepositions, auxiliaries, articles).

‘It’s the worst thing that you could do’

Underline the words you would normally stress in these sentences.

1. She won’t be able to come tonight.

2. I’ve never been able to play chess well.

3. She can ski better than me.

4. We weren’t able to find the restaurant.

I’ll be able to meet her family on Saturday.

2.Make the phonetic analysis of the following words:

Craters, geologist, geneticist

3.Classification of vowels according to the stability of articulation

Stability of articulation. Vowels are grouped into 3 groups: Monophthongs,

diphthongs, diphthongoids.

Monophthongs are vowels the articulation of which is almost unchanging: [i,e, ᵆ,

a:, Ͻ, Ͻ:, u, ^, З:, Ә]

In the pronunciation of diphthongs the organs of speech glide from one vowel

position to another within one syllable:[ ei, ai, Ͻi, au, зu, iә, έә, uә]

In the pronunciation of diphthongoids the articulation is slightly changing but

the difference between the starting point and the end is not so distinct as it

is in the case of diphthongs. [i:, u:]


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